rama chapter33.html rama.html about_the_author.html Dharma Yoga R. Nagaswamy Rāma as embodiment of Dharma

The Hindus divided their life into two broad categories, as worldly life (pravṛtti mārga) and religious life (nivṛtti mārga). The worldly life is controllled by dharma sastra and nivritti marga by vedantic knowledge. Manu was the earliest to compile a code of life for worldly life in his work called Manu’s Dharma Śastra and the collection of upanishads especially the Taittriya upanishad provide the path way to self realization. Both ultimately are based on Vedas and the Hindu system – vendantic life or vedika system. The King is the leader and protector of the country. So the King is expected to cultivate the righteous conduct and rule his country and must possess righteous conduct. India is called Dharma Kṣetra, a land of dharma. Many Kings down the centuries declared that they followed Manu in their administration in their country. The Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa are the two works that stood as sletting examples of these concepts with these texts were considered as the very embodiment of dharma in action. Rāma was only a living being but picturisque portrayal of all qualities as described by Manu’s description as Dharma. Mohan describes the virtues of dharma in Taittiriya upanishad which is considered as dharma. As an introduction to, in a text, published by Ramakrishna Mission in 1918 that gives word-to-word meaning and running translation. Then he gives in the second part, the introduction to Rāma as an Ideal King as given in Vālmīki’s Rāmāyaṇa. Rāma is known as dharmajña and veda vedantavith, one who knows veda and vedānta. The introduction in Rāmāyaṇa gives all the qualities described in Manu’s Dharma Śastra as pocessed by Rāma. This evildently stands to describe whole of Rāmāyaṇa is an illustration of Dharma taught in Dharma Śāstra. This again is seen in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa in two parts. The first part lists only the name of the righteous qualities, while the second part describe each word in detail. Thus it is an elaboration of Dharma Śastric tradition in which Rāma is described as Puruṣottama. In the following writeup kings who ruled different parts of India at different times are listed and shown, that they followed Manu’s Dharma in their own epigraphical records which serve as the verifiable pramānās (evidences) to show, to prove whole of India from very early times followed Manu’s Dharma Śastra’s (R N). Taittirya Upanishad and Rāmāyaṇa Eleventh Anuvāka vedam anūcyā ācāryah antevāsinam anuśāsti . satyaṃ vada. dharmam cara. svādhyāyān mā pramadaḥ. ācāryāya priyaṃ dhanam āhṛtya prajātantuṃ mā vyavacchetsīḥ . satyāt na pramaditavyam. dharmāt na pramaditavyam . kuśalāna pramaditavyam . bhūtyai na pramaditavyam . svādhyāya pravacanābhyāṃ na pramaditavyam .. —1 vedaṃ = the Vedas ; anūcya = having taught ; ācāryaḥ = the teacher ; antevāsinaṃ = the disciple (lit. one who dwells near) ; anuśāsti = exhorts ; satyaṃ = the truth ; vada = speak ; dharma = Dharma ; cara = perform ; svādhyāyāt = from the study of the Vedas ; = never ; pramadaḥ = swerve, stray away ; ācāryāya = for the teacher ; priyaṃ = pleasant, the desired, ; dhanam = wealth ; āhṛtya = having gathered ; prajātantuṃ = the thread of progeny ; = never ; vyavacchetsīḥ = cut ; satyām = from the truth ; na = not ; pramaditavyam = should stray away ; dharmāt = from the Dharma ; na = not ; pramaditavyam = should swerve, ; kuśalāt = From the beneficial ; na = not ; pramaditavyam = should be abandoned ; bhūtyai = from prosperity ; na = not ; pramaditavyama = should be deviated ; svādhyāyapravacanābhyāṃ = (svādhyāya+pravacana) from the study and teaching of the Vedas not ; pramaditavyam = should be abandoned. Having taught the Vedas the teacher exhorts the disciple, — "Speak the truth. Perform Dharma. Swerve not from the study of the Scriptures. Having gathered for the teacher the wealth he desires, (thou) shouldst never cut the thread of progeny. Never swerve away from truth. Swerye not from Dharma. From the beneficial let thee not deviate; and deviate not from prosperity. Let thee not stray away also from the study and teaching of the Vedas." [Dharmam i.e., the obligatory duties as enjoined in the Śruti and Smṛti.] Having gathered . . . desires i.e, having given the Guril-Dakṣiṇa, the teacher's fee, in the shape of gifts such as cows, gold, cloth, etc., and other objects which the teacher desires in accordance with the Law, at the cluse of the studentship. Then should . . . progeny i.e., after returning from the guru's house, or in other words, after the performance of the ceremony known as Samavarianam, one should take to a suitable bride for the procreation of children and thereby pay the debt of the fathers (pitṛṛṇaṃ). This is an injunction of the Śruti not to remain outside any Āśrama. As soon as the student life is finished, one should enter into the householder's life or become a Sannyasin, but never remain in a state which is neither the one nor the other, that is called Antarāśrama. There is a further hint in this passage to the attitude one should have towards the married life, One should look upon marriage not as an opportunity given for sexual enjoyment, but as a sacred duty towards the forefathers and the society, inasmuch as by procreation of children the perpetuity of the family line is kept up and the departed forefathers get their offering from the family without a break, and also the social strength is maintained. Never swerve, etc. — The repetition here of the duties. enumerated above is meant to emphasise upon the fact that these are to be practised all through the life, and not for a certain period only. The beneficial — i.e., the acts tending to self-preservation. Deviate not from prosperity — i.e., should always try to increase the prosperity by "adopting both the physical and super-physical means such as the performances of yajña etc.] deva pitṛkāryābhyāṃ na pramaditavyam . mātṛdevo bhava. pitṛdevo bhava . ācāryadevo bhava. atithidevo bhava. yānyani anavadyāni karmāṇi. tāni sevitavyāni . no itarāṇi. yānyani asmākaṃ sucaritāni . tāni tvaya upāsyān . no itarāṇiḥ . — 2 devapitṛkāryābhyām = from the duties to gods and manes. ; na = not ; pramaditavyam = swerve. ; mātṛdevaḥ = the mother as a god ; bhava = be. ; pitṛdevaḥ = the father as a god ; bhava = be ; ācāryadevaḥ = the teacher as a god ; atithi devaḥ = the guest as a god ; bhava = be ; yāni = whatever ; anavadyāni = free blemishers ; karmāṇi = works ; tāni = those ; sevitavyāni = should be done. ; no = not ; itarāṇi = others; ; asmākaṃ = our ; yāni = whatever ; sucaritāni = good deeds ; tāni = those ; tvayā = by thee ; upāsyāni = should be followed at not an others. Never swerve from the rites due to the gods. and to the manes. Let thy mother be to thee a god; let thy father be a god to thee; a god let thy teacher be unto thee, and (so also) let thy guest be unto thee a god. Let only those works be done by thee that are free from blemishes, and not others. Only those deeds of ours should be followed by thee, that are good, and not others. [Rites due to the gods and manes i.e., such obligatory sacrifical rites as Agnihotra etc. and the ceremonies such as Shrāddha and Tarpana. Let thy mother be, etc. — i.e., let you look upon your father, mother, teacher and guests as veritable gods and worship them with due reverence and proper services.] ye ke cā asmad chreyāṃso brāhmaṇāḥ . teṣāṃ tvayā āsanena praśvasitavyam śraddhayā deyam . aśraddhayā adeyam . śriyā deyam . hriyā deyam . bhiyā deyam . saṃvidā deyam . atha yadi te karma vicikitsā vā . vṛtta vicikitsā vā. syāt. — 3 ye tatra brāhmaṇāḥ sam marśinaḥ. yuktā āyuktāḥ . alūkṣā dharmakāmāḥ syuḥ. yathā te tatra varteran . tathā tatra vartethāḥ. atha abhyākhyāteṣu . ye tatra brāhmaṇāḥ samm marśinaḥ . yuktā āyuktāḥ . alūkṣā dharmakāmāḥ syuḥ. yathā te teṣu varteran . tathā teṣu vartethāḥ . eṣa ādeśaḥ . eṣa upadeśaḥ . eṣā vedopaniṣad . etad anuśāsanam . evam upāsitavyam. evamucaitad upāsyam . — 4 ye ke = whoever ; asmacchreyāṃsaḥ = (asmat + śreyāṃsaḥ) superior to ourselves ; brāhmaṇāḥ = Brāhmaṇas (santi there are) ; svaṃyā = by thee ; āsanena = by (presentation of) seats, etc. ; teṣāṃ = their ; praśvasitavyam = fatigue should be removed. ; śraddhayā = with faith and reverence should be given, ; aśraddhayā = without reverence and faith ; adeyam = should not be given, ; śriyā = in plenty ; deyam = should be given ; hriyā = with modesty ; deyam = should be given, ; bhiyā = with fear ; deyam = should be given, ; saṃvidā = with compassion ; deyam = should be given. ; atha = next ; yadi = if ; te karmavicikitsā = doubt as regards any work ; = or ; vṛttavicikitsā = doubt as regards conduct ; = or ; syāt = [ ] tatra there, in that place or time ; sammarśinaḥ = of good judgment ; alūkṣāḥ = guileless, ; dharmakāmāḥ = devoted ts Dharma ; yuktāḥ = engaged (in sacrificial rites), ; ayuktāḥ = not set on by others ; brāhmaṇāḥ = Brāhmaṇas ; syuḥ = are ; te = they ; tatra = in those matters ; yathā = as ; vartteran = do ; tatra = there. (i.e., in those matters) ; tathā = so ; vartethāḥ = shall act. ; atha = now ; abhyākhyāteṣu = as to the dealing with persons of ill-fame ye tatra . . . . tathā teṣu vartetāḥ (repctition of the previous passage) ; eṣaḥ = this ; ādeśaḥ = the injunction ; eṣaḥ = this ; upadeśaḥ = advice ; eṣaḥ = this ; vedopaniṣat = the secret of the Vedas ; etad = this ; anuśāsanam = the commandment ; evaṃ = thus ; upāsitavyam = should be observed ; evam = thus ; u = verily ; ca = and ; etad = this ; upāsyam = should be observed. Whichever Brāhmaṇas there are superior to us, thou shouldst remove their fatigue by serving them with seats (etc). Gift should be given with shraddha; it should never be given without shraddha; it should be given in plenty, with modesty, with fear, with compassion. Now, if there should arise in thee any doubt as regards any sacred work, or as regards conduct, thou shouldst act in those matters as do those Brāhmaṇas there, who are: guileless, of good judgment, devoted to Dharma, engaged (in the prescribed duties) (or) unengaged. Now as regards dealing with persons of ill-fame, do thou deal with them as do the Brāhmaṇas there, who are guileless, of good judgment, devoted to Dharma, engaged (or) unengaged. This is the injunction. This is the advice. This is the secret of the Vedas. This is the commandment. This should be observed. And verily this should be observed (by thee). [Whichever . . . . with seats — i.e., wherever you find any Brāhmaṇa greater in learning and wisdom than all of us you should always serve him by offering āsana, pādya, arghya and such other tokens of respect and articles of comfort. Or, the text āsanena praśvasitavyam can be read as āsane na praśvasitavyam and the whole of the latter, part of the sentence would then mean, "as they , sit, thou shouldst not breathe," i.e, whenever such persons sit in an assembly, you should not talk before them, — as if, you have to withhold your very breath in reverence to them, much less prattle to show your knowledge. Shraddhā. — It is that strong dynamic faith in the truth of the Scriptures and sayings of the Guru, which becomes the motive power of one's actions. Any action or duty performed with this shraddha tends to deepen the religious consciousness and hastens its spiritual efflorescence. The opposite only deepens the egotism and increases the bondage of ignorance. Here the word shraddha conveys both the ideas of faith and reverence. cf. Bhagavat Gīta XVII. 28. Should be given in plenty — Different commentators have explained the word, śriyā, differently. Some have taken it to mean, "with discrimination," i.e., gifts should be made with proper discrimination. Sureśvarāchārya explains it also to mean that "a gilt should be made fully according to one's means," because that is the Sattvic gift. With fear — i.e., the fear of Dharma, whose nonperformance would entail sin. of good judgment i.e., who are able to discern the subtle points and judge their merits in accordance with the injunctions of the Scriptures. Engaged (or) unengaged — i.e., engaged by others in the performances of sacrificial rites, or an independent man not employed in any one's sacrificial work. Or, the former may mean, "ever engaged in the study of the Vedas", and unengaged, i.e., "not urged or set upon by others to the work or conduct." Secret of the Vedas — i.e., the essence of the Vedic injunctions. [Note. Deeds are of two classes, those which are enjoined in the Śruti, such as the Agnihotra, and those which are enjoined in the Smṛti such as the Sandhya-vandana or worship of the Divine Being at the main points of time in the day. To take an example from the works enjoined in the Śruti : In one place the Sruti says, "the offering of oblation should be made when the sun has risen"; and elsewhere it says "the offering of oblation should be made when the sun has not yet risen." This may give room to a doubt. Again, to take an example of the works enjoined in the Smṛti : A doubt may arise as to whether the Sandhya Devata — the form in which the Divine Being should be worshipped at the main points of time in the day — is of the male or female sex, the scriptures speaking of the Devata in either way. To take another example of a custom in worldly affairs handed down in the family; a doubt arises as to the propriety of marrying a maternal uncle's daughter, or of eating animal food, inasmuch as contradictory views obtain in these matters. In such matters of doubt you should act, in the way those great Brāhmaṇas would act who live in the same country, age, and, tribe in which you live at the time, — these Brāhmaṇas being free of attachment, aversion, anxiety and other evil tendencies are competent, to decide as to the real meaning of the scriptures; these are themselves engaged in the observances of the obligatory works, and intent upon their due performances; and they are free from passion and bigotry, and work only for Dharma and not for any other gain." — Sureśvara's comment. The whole of this eleventh Anuvak is an exhortation of the teacher upon the pupil who has just finished his course of study and is about to depart from his Guru. It is analogous to the convocational addresses of modern universities, and full of most ennobling sentiments which the modern graduates would do well to emulate.] Puruṣottaman Śrimad Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇam, Ayodyā Kāṇḍam, Pratamaḥ Sargaḥ teṣāmapi mahātejā rāmo ratikaraḥ pituḥ . svayambhūriva bhūtānāṃ babhūva guṇavattaraḥ .. 2-1-6 sa hi devai rudīrṇasya rāvaṇasya vadhārthibhiḥ . arthito mānuṣe loke jajñe viṣṇuḥ sanātanaḥ .. 2-1-7 kausalyā śuśubhe putreṇa amitatejasā . yathā vareṇa devānām aditir vajrapāṇinā .. 2-1-8 sa hi rūpopapannaśca vīryavān anasūyakaḥ . bhūmāvanupamaḥ sūnur guṇair dhaśarathopamaḥ .. 2-1-9 sa ca nityaṃ praśāntātmā mṛdupūrvaṃ tu bhāṣate . ucyamāno.api paruṣaṃ nottaraṃ pratipadyate .. 2-1-10 kathaṃcid upakāreṇa kṛtenai kena tuṣyati . na smaraty apakārāṇāṃ śatamapy ātmavattayā .. 2-1-11 śīlavṛddhai rjñāna vṛddhair vayo vṛddhaiśca sajjanaiḥ . kathayannāstavai nityam astrayogya antareṣvapi .. 2-1-12 buddhimān madhurābhāṣī pūrvabhāṣī priyaṃvadaḥ . vīryavānna ca vīryeṇa mahatā svena vismitaḥ .. 2-1-13 na cānṛtakatho vidvān vṛddhānāṃ pratipūjakaḥ . anuraktaḥ prajābhiśca prajāś cāpy anurajyate .. 2-1-14 sānukrośo jitakrodho brāhmaṇa prati pūjakaḥ . dīnānukampī dharmaño nityaṃ pragrahavān śuciḥ .. 2-1-15 kulocitamatiḥ kṣātraṃ dharmaṃ svaṃ bahumanyate . manyate parayā kīrtya mahat svargaphalaṃ tataḥ .. 2-1-16 nāśreyasi rato vidvānna viruddhakathāruciḥ . uttarottarayuktau ca vaktā vācaspati ryathā .. 2-1-17 arogas taruṇo vāgmī vapuṣmān deśakālavit . loke puruṣasārajñas sādhur eko vinirmitaḥ .. 2-1-18 sa tu sreṣṭhair guṇair yuktaḥ prajānāṃ pārthivātmajaḥ . bahiścara iva prāṇo babhūva guṇataḥ priyaḥ .. 2-1-19 . samyag vidyā vratasnāto yathā vatsāṅgavedavit iṣvastre ca pituḥ śreṣṭho babhūva bharatāgrajaḥ .. 2-1-20 kalyāṇābhijanaḥ sādhur adīnaḥ satyavāgṛjuḥ . vṛddhair abhivinītaśca dvijair dharmārtha darśibhiḥ .. 2-1-21 dharma kāmārtha tattvajñaḥ smṛtimān pratibhānavān . laukike samayācāre kṛtakalpo viśāradaḥ .. 2-1-22 nibhṛtaḥ saṃvṛtākāro guptamantraḥ sahāyavān . amogha krodha harṣaśca tyāga saṃyama kālavit .. 2-1-23 dṛḍha bhaktiḥ sthira prajño nāsadgrāhī na durvacāḥ . nistandrir apramattaśca svadoṣa paradoṣavit .. 2-1-24 śāstrajñaśca kṛtajñaśca puruṣāntarakovidaḥ . yaḥ pragraha anugrahayor yathā nyāyaṃ vicakṣaṇaḥ .. 2-1-25 satsaṃgraha pragrahaṇe sthānavin nigrahasya ca . āyakarmaṇy upāyajñaḥ saṃdṛṣṭa vyaya karmavit .. 2-1-26 śraiṣṭhyaṃ śāstrasamūheṣu prāpto vyāmiśrakeṣu ca . artha dharmau ca saṃgṛhya sukha tantro na cālasaḥ .. 2-1-27 vaihārikāṇāṃ śilpānāṃ vijñāta artha vibhāgavit . ārohe vinaye caiva yukto vāraṇavājinām .. 2-1-28 dhanur veda vidāṃ sreṣṭho loke'atiratha saṃmataḥ . abhiyātā prahartā ca senā naya viśāradaḥ .. 2-1-29 apradhṛṣyaśca saṃgrāme kruddhairapi surāsuraiḥ . anasūyo jita krodho na dṛpto na ca matsarī . na cāvamantā bhūtānāṃ na ca kālavaśānugaḥ .. 2-1-30 evaṃ śreṣṭha guṇair yuktaḥ prajānāṃ pārthivātmajaḥ . saṃmatas triṣu lokeṣu vasudhāyāḥ kṣamā guṇaiḥ .. 2-1-31 buddyā bṛhaspates tulyo vīryeṇāpi śacīpateḥ . tathā sarva prajā kāntaiḥ prīti saṃjananaiḥ pituḥ .. 2-1-32 guṇair viruruce rāmo dīptaḥ sūrya ivāṃśubhiḥ . tamevaṃ vrata saṃpannam apradhṛṣya parākramam .. 2-1-33 lokapālopamaṃ nātham akāmayata medinī . पुरुषोत्तमन् श्रिमद्वाल्मीकि रामायणम् , अयोद्या काण्डम् , प्रतमः सर्गः तेषामपि महातेजा रामो रतिकरः पितुः । स्वयम्भूरिव भूतानां बभूव गुणवत्तरः ॥ २-१-६ स हि देवै रुदीर्णस्य रावणस्य वधार्थिभिः । अर्थितो मानुषे लोके जज्ञे विष्णुः सनातनः ॥ २-१-७ कौसल्या शुशुभे पुत्रेण अमिततेजसा । यथा वरेण देवानाम् अदितिर् वज्रपाणिना ॥ २-१-८ स हि रूपोपपन्नश्च वीर्यवान् अनसूयकः । भूमावनुपमः सूनुर् गुणैर् धशरथोपमः ॥ २-१-९ स च नित्यं प्रशान्तात्मा मृदुपूर्वं तु भाषते । उच्यमानो।अपि परुषं नोत्तरं प्रतिपद्यते ॥ २-१-१० कथंचिद् उपकारेण कृतेनै केन तुष्यति । न स्मरत्य् अपकाराणां शतमप्य् आत्मवत्तया ॥ २-१-११ शीलवृद्धै र्ज्ञान वृद्धैर् वयो वृद्धैश्च सज्जनैः । कथयन्नास्तवै नित्यम् अस्त्रयोग्य अन्तरेष्वपि ॥ २-१-१२ बुद्धिमान् मधुराभाषी पूर्वभाषी प्रियंवदः । वीर्यवान्न च वीर्येण महता स्वेन विस्मितः ॥ २-१-१३ न चानृतकथो विद्वान् वृद्धानां प्रतिपूजकः । अनुरक्तः प्रजाभिश्च प्रजाश् चाप्य् अनुरज्यते ॥ २-१-१४ सानुक्रोशो जितक्रोधो ब्राह्मण प्रति पूजकः । दीनानुकम्पी धर्मञो नित्यं प्रग्रहवान् शुचिः ॥ २-१-१५ कुलोचितमतिः क्षात्रं धर्मं स्वं बहुमन्यते । मन्यते परया कीर्त्य महत् स्वर्गफलं ततः ॥ २-१-१६ नाश्रेयसि रतो विद्वान्न विरुद्धकथारुचिः । उत्तरोत्तरयुक्तौ च वक्ता वाचस्पति र्यथा ॥ २-१-१७ अरोगस् तरुणो वाग्मी वपुष्मान् देशकालवित् । लोके पुरुषसारज्ञस् साधुर् एको विनिर्मितः ॥ २-१-१८ स तु स्रेष्ठैर् गुणैर् युक्तः प्रजानां पार्थिवात्मजः । बहिश्चर इव प्राणो बभूव गुणतः प्रियः ॥ २-१-१९ । सम्यग् विद्या व्रतस्नातो यथा वत्साङ्गवेदवित् इष्वस्त्रे च पितुः श्रेष्ठो बभूव भरताग्रजः ॥ २-१-२० कल्याणाभिजनः साधुर् अदीनः सत्यवागृजुः । वृद्धैर् अभिविनीतश्च द्विजैर् धर्मार्थ दर्शिभिः ॥ २-१-२१ धर्म कामार्थ तत्त्वज्ञः स्मृतिमान् प्रतिभानवान् । लौकिके समयाचारे कृतकल्पो विशारदः ॥ २-१-२२ निभृतः संवृताकारो गुप्तमन्त्रः सहायवान् । अमोघ क्रोध हर्षश्च त्याग संयम कालवित् ॥ २-१-२३ दृढ भक्तिः स्थिर प्रज्ञो नासद्ग्राही न दुर्वचाः । निस्तन्द्रिर् अप्रमत्तश्च स्वदोष परदोषवित् ॥ २-१-२४ शास्त्रज्ञश्च कृतज्ञश्च पुरुषान्तरकोविदः । यः प्रग्रह अनुग्रहयोर् यथा न्यायं विचक्षणः ॥ २-१-२५ सत्संग्रह प्रग्रहणे स्थानविन् निग्रहस्य च । आयकर्मण्य् उपायज्ञः संदृष्ट व्यय कर्मवित् ॥ २-१-२६ श्रैष्ठ्यं शास्त्रसमूहेषु प्राप्तो व्यामिश्रकेषु च । अर्थ धर्मौ च संगृह्य सुख तन्त्रो न चालसः ॥ २-१-२७ वैहारिकाणां शिल्पानां विज्ञात अर्थ विभागवित् । आरोहे विनये चैव युक्तो वारणवाजिनाम् ॥ २-१-२८ धनुर् वेद विदां स्रेष्ठो लोकेऽतिरथ संमतः । अभियाता प्रहर्ता च सेना नय विशारदः ॥ २-१-२९ अप्रधृष्यश्च संग्रामे क्रुद्धैरपि सुरासुरैः । अनसूयो जित क्रोधो न दृप्तो न च मत्सरी । न चावमन्ता भूतानां न च कालवशानुगः ॥ २-१-३० एवं श्रेष्ठ गुणैर् युक्तः प्रजानां पार्थिवात्मजः । संमतस् त्रिषु लोकेषु वसुधायाः क्षमा गुणैः ॥ २-१-३१ बुद्द्या बृहस्पतेस् तुल्यो वीर्येणापि शचीपतेः । तथा सर्व प्रजा कान्तैः प्रीति संजननैः पितुः ॥ २-१-३२ गुणैर् विरुरुचे रामो दीप्तः सूर्य इवांशुभिः । तमेवं व्रत संपन्नम् अप्रधृष्य पराक्रमम् ॥ २-१-३३ लोकपालोपमं नाथम् अकामयत मेदिनी ।